Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) presented a “theory” that denies the creation of man as well as creation itself. The theory was announced in the second half of the nineteenth century. Although it is an “assumption,” there are those who consider it scientific evidence to support their arguments against the reality of creation. The theory claims that the origin of life lies in a single small animal that was “developed” on its own from water. The “environment”, according to the theory, imposed specific structural changes on this organism producing new features in it. These changes were then inherited in the offspring and further transformed with time to produce more advanced creatures of which man is the highest form. This is the theory of Darwin.
The Background and Basics of The Theory:
- The theory depends on what was observed in archeological discoveries at the time of Darwin: old and new geological layers contained different remains from different forms of creation. The “old” layers contained “primitive” forms of creation while more recent layers contained more “advanced” forms. Darwin concluded that the “more advanced” creatures originated (evolved) from the “lower primitive” ones.
- The theory also depends upon an idea that was prevailing at the time of Darwin in which it was thought that all animal embryos were similar at their early stages of development. This brought a conclusion that “the origin of all beings is one” and that “evolution” on earth occurred in the same way it occurred inside the wombs of living beings.
- Furthermore, the theory cites “differences in the roles” of the appendix in man in comparison to that in monkey. Since it is assumed that it “does not have a role” to play in the function of the human body while it can digest plants in monkeys, the theory suggested that the appendix in man is an underdeveloped form that was a left over from monkeys.
- The theory assumes the presence of a “Natural Selection” process in which there are “elimination factors” that can abolish the weak living beings while the strong ones are kept, and that their characteristics are to be inherited in their offspring. With time these characteristics will accumulate in the new beings producing new characteristics. According to Darwin, this represents the “evolutionary” process that makes of these new characteristics “higher” forms of life.
- The theory suggests a “Sexual Selection” process by which there is a tendency of the male and female to mate with the strong and best members of both sexes. The characteristics of the “best” will be “inherited” and those associated with weak animals would be “eliminated” because of the lack of tendency and/or interest to mate the weak.
- Whenever a new characteristic is evolved it is inherited in the offspring.
REALITY VS THEORY
(1) The Points about Archeology
The science of archeology is far from being complete and no one can claim that the search has been completed under the earth or sea layers. The door is still open for more discoveries that may contradict the theory. Assuming, however, that the findings of this science are completed, this does not establish that “higher” forms of life are developed from “lower” ones. This is only evidence for organized existence of these beings (in any form) at times when the environment is suitable for that. On the other hand, the archeological studies at the time of Darwin estimated that man’s life on earth was 600,000 years whereas new archaeological discoveries give an estimate figure of 10 Million years. This is a reflection of the incompleteness of these studies and that this science is still variable.
It is also important to note that there are many “missing links” in the so-called “evolutionary chain” of Darwin’s theory. For example there are no archeological data to link animals of “single cells” and those of “multiple cells” nor between invertebrate animals and fish or amphibians. The same is true between amphibians and reptiles and between amphibians and birds.
(2) The Point About Embryos
This was a wrong conclusion made by some scientists because of the less sophisticated microscopy present at Darwin’s time. Today’s technology demonstrates that there are fine differences between the structure, build up and organization of animal embryos.
(3) The Point About The Appendix
The presence of this organ in man does not represent a concrete evidence for the development of man from a “monkey”. Rather its presence is inherited from the grand-man who depended upon vegetation as a source of food to help him digest it. In addition, there could be other important functions for the appendix that are not discovered yet.
Update about Appendix:
Far from being useless, the appendix may produce and protect beneficial probiotic colonies in the digestive system. According to researchers, the human digestive system is full of bacteria necessary to digest food. When attack from diseases, sometimes these important kinds of bacteria are purged or killed off. In such situations, the appendix can act as a reserve for good bacteria. After the immune system beats off the disease, the bacteria emerge and re-colonize the gut.
For the past few decades, conventional medicine believed the appendix was an unimportant organ and served very little function. Emerging evidence is painting a strikingly different picture, revealing the startling physiological role the appendix plays in health. It turns out that the appendix may play a vital function in the development of the immune system. According to research, lymphoid tissue accumulates in the appendix after birth. In turn, the appendix helps in the maturation of B lymphocytes and the production of antibodies. What’s more, the appendix produces specific molecules that aid in the movement of lymphocytes to various locations within the body.
Based on current evidence, proposals have been made to suggest the appendix serves as a “reservoir” for beneficial gut flora. When illness reduces good bacteria from the intestines, the appendix may store some of that good bacteria for back up. It’s also been shown that individuals without an appendix may be four times more likely to suffer from recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis, an irritation of the large intestine by spore-forming bacteria. This condition is often present when the body is running low on gut flora, potentially explaining the connection between the appendix and its role in maintaining probiotic levels. While the research is still a little bare, the conclusion is clear–the appendix is important for health.
- Duke Medicine News and Communications. Appendix Isn’t Useless at All: It’s a Safe House for Bacteria. Duke Medicine.
- Aniruddha Sarkar, Anubha Saha, Sanchita Roy, Santanu Pathak, and Shyamash Mandal. A Glimpse Towards the Vestigiality and Fate of Human Vermiform Appendix-A Histomorphometric Study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Feb; 9(2): AC11-AC15.
- Scientific American. What is the function of the human appendix? Did it once have a purpose that has since been lost? Scientific American.
- R. Randal Bollinger, Andrew S. Barbas, Errol L. Bush, Shu S. Lin, William Parker.Biofilms in the large bowel suggest an apparent function of the human vermiform appendix. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Volume 249, Issue 4, 21 December 2007, Pages 826-831.
- Rob Dunn. Your Appendix Could Save Your Life. Scientific American.
- NBC News. Scientists may have found appendix’s purpose. NBC Health News.
(4) The Point About Natural Selectivity
(a) Elimination “Factors” & Life “Factors”
Surely there is a law and discipline that work to eliminate the living creatures, weak as well as strong. Allaah ordained death on every living being. The elimination factors are not the only factors that affect life on this planet. There are “life factors” as well, and that there is a discipline of mutual dependency and relationship between the living being and its environment. These “factors” represent the true means which Allaah has provided: sun, seas, wind, rain, plants, gravity, etc. All of these means are coordinated to provide survival for man, animals and plants. Considering the “elimination factors” alone and disregarding the “life factors” is confusion on the part of Darwin’s theory. When scientists try to formulate theories to explain certain matters in the outside world, they take into account all factors of influence.
(b) Natural Selectivity or “Mother Nature”
Surely those in support of the theory of evolution like to refer to “Mother Nature” as the “source” that provides and supports the “natural selectivity.” “Mother Nature”, however, lacks wisdom, power, self-coordination, will, and knowledge. Natural things such as wind, lightning, water, storms, warmth, severe cold, etc. can cause destruction or deformation. How could these conditions explain the beauty of the creation and its fine course of establishment and coordination? How could the minute elements in the egg of a bird “know” that the egg must appear in the form of a bird and thus it has to break its own shell to survive? The One Who had created nature provided all the means for its course of existence and activity.
Now we see that many who arrogantly deny Allaah’s existence try to divert the attention of the people to worship this “new” deity called “Mother Nature”! In many conversations some people are reluctant to say
“God” when they want to refer to “supernatural” phenomena. Instead, they say: “Mother Nature” did such and such. They like to look “normal and advanced” and not “strange and backward” in front of others. The idea of “how people will look at me,” overshadows that God (Allaah) is more important than people. It is a reflection of psychological defeat in front of secularism, which itself is the major fruit of Darwin’s theory. It is lack of true faith in the true God, Allaah. A believer in Allaah would not fear saying the Name of his Creator, the Most Merciful, and the Most Compassionate. He knows that those around him will one day die, but Allaah is the Ever- living. So, who must count first? He knows that Allaah is the Sustainer and Provider and not the “Chairman of the Boards” nor the “Chief Executives,” managers, or any other boss! This is the benefit of worship of Allaah: A liberation from slavery to anything and (or) anyone but Allaah.
(c) “Mother Nature” Is Not The “Creator”
A simple comparison between man and nature illustrates that man can see, hear, know, learn, reason, etc. whereas nature has none of these qualities. How could man then be “more advanced” than a “creator” known as “Mother Nature?”
This proves the falsehood of the idea of god-Mother Nature. Allaah says:
“Say (O Muhammad to mankind): How do you worship besides Allaah something which has no power either to harm or benefit you? But it is Allaah, Who is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” (Qur’an 5:76).
In many aspects, nature is under man’s service, and its resource is under his disposal, as Allaah had decreed in the Final Revelation to mankind, the Qur’an:
“See you not (O men) that Allaah has subjected for you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and has perfected His graces upon you (both) apparent and hidden? Yet of mankind is he who disputes about Allaah without knowledge or guidance or a Book giving light.” (Qur’an 31: 20).
With the progress of technology some people became even more arrogant. Not only do they refer to “Mother Nature” as the “founder or creator,” but aim to control nature itself. It is a strange conclusion! Allaah has made it very clear that there will be this type of people:
“The likeness of (this) worldly life is as the rain which We send down from the sky, so by it arises the intermingled produce of the earth of which men and cattle eat until when the earth is clad with its adornments and is beautified, and its people think that they have all powers of disposal over it. Our Command reaches it by night or by day and We make it like a clean-mown harvest, as if it had not flourished yesterday! Thus do We explain the Signs (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, laws, etc.) in detail for people who reflect.” (Qur’an 10: 24).
(d) The “Laws” of Nature
Some consider that “Nature” represents the “Laws” that govern the universe. They try to explain how things occur, but do not answer questions like: Who created this universe? Who put the “Laws” into effect? This leaves them separated by an artificial barrier into two “personalities”: one that best “fit” the society (i.e. the outside) and tries to give “interpretations” for what occurs in the universe; and one kept within themselves confessing that God (Allaah) is the One commanding these “supernatural” phenomena. But under dangerous circumstances, you hear them calling: “Oh my God!” or “God help me!”
In the old ages, man knew that rain came down from the sky. Today we know a lot about this process, from the evaporation of water up to the formation of raindrops, there is a reflection of real actions. In their references, scientists do not tell us how did these realities become laws. For example: why are these laws coordinated in ways allowing birds to fly in the air, fishes to live in the water, and man to live on the earth? “Nature’s” qualities are not its own. It has been given the attributes we feel and see around us. The true Creating Power has all the Perfect Attributes and All-Perfect Actions. He is Allaah:
Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)): Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: “(It is) Allaah.” Say: “Have you then taken (for worship) Auliyâ’ (protectors) other than Him, such as have no power either for benefit or for harm to themselves?” Say: “Is the blind equal to the one who sees? Or darkness equal to light? Or do they assign to Allaah partners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them.” Say: “Allâh is the Creator of all things; He is the One, the Irresistible.”
The One Who has created (everything), and fashioned it in due order and proportion; Who has measured and granted guidance. (Qur’aan 87: 2-3)
“The One who has created the seven heavens one above another, you can see no fault in the creation of the One (Allaah) Whose Mercy encompasses everything. Then look again: “Can you see any rifts?”
“Then look again and yet again, your sight will return to you in a state of humiliation and worn out.” (Qur’an 67: 3-4).
“Allaah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you see. Then He ascended the ‘Arsh (the Throne in a manner that suits His Majesty). He has subjected the sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running (its course) for a term appointed. He regulates all affairs, explaining the Aayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail, that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Rabb. (Qur’an 13: 2).
“He has created the heavens without any pillars, that you see, and has set on the earth firm mountains, lest it shake with you. And He has scattered therein animals of all kinds. And We send down water (rain) from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind you grow therein.” (Qur’an 31: 10).
“And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched us6.” (Qur’an 50: 38).
(e) A God Other Than Allaah!?
In an Address to man, Allaah sends clear and vivid verifications as well as challenges for man and for these “gods” that some invoke and worship:
The “We” refers to Allaah Himself. It is common with Semitic languages for any monarch to use the “We” and “Us” when referring to himself. And to Allaah belongs the best example. He Glorifies Himself as suits His Majesty. When Allaah says: “We” or “Us,” no one who is familiar with the Arabic lexicology understands that this refers to “more than one God united in one!” Allaah is One and Unique and all of His Attributes describe His Essence, not qualities of separate “gods”! He is the Most Merciful, the Provider, the Creator, the Oft-Forgiving, the Originator, etc. 6The authenticity of the contents of any book, which describes Allaah with imperfect Attributes, is questionable. Allaah acts, originates, creates, and does what He wants such that neither tiredness nor slumber or sleep overtakes Him:
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him. (Qur’an 2:255)
“Is not He (better than your gods) Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains
therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas (of salt and sweet water). Is there any god with Allaah? Nay, but most of them know not.” (Qur’an 61 :27)
“Is not He (better than your gods) Who created the heavens and the earth, and sends down for you water (rain) from the sky whereby We cause to grow gardens full of beauty and delight. It is not in your power to cause the growth of their trees. Is there any god with Allaah? Nay, but they are a people who ascribe equals (to Him)!” (Qur’an 27: 60).
“Is not He (better than your gods) Who guides you in the darkness of the land and sea, and Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His Mercy (Rain)? Is there any god with Allaah? High Exalted be Allaah from all that they ascribe as partner (to Him)!” (Qur’an 27: 63).
“Is not He (better than your gods) Who originates creation, then repeats it, and Who gives you sustenance from heaven and earth? Is there any god with Allaah? Say, “Bring forth your proofs, if you are truthful.” (Qur’an 27: 64).
“Say (to the disbelievers): “Tell me, if Allaah took away your hearing and your sight, and sealed up your hearts, who is there-an “ilah” (a god) other than Allaah could restore them to you? Look, how variously We explain the Signs, yet they turn aside.” (Qur’an 6: 46).
Many in this world have turned to worship many created things or beings. Divine attributes has been given to Buddha, ‘Eesa (Jesus), Saints, Monks, Musa (Moses), Prophets, Places, Rivers, Cows, Temples, etc., Do these “gods” benefit or harm?
“And they worship besides Allaah things that hurt them not, nor profit them and they say: “These are our intercessors with Allaah.” Say: “Do you indeed inform Allaah with that which He knows not, in the heavens or on earth? Far is He removed from every imperfection! And far is He above all that which they associate as partners with Him!” (Qur’an 10: 18).
Where did they find “Names” for them?
“You do not worship besides Him but only names which you have forged, you and your fathers, for which Allaah has sent down no authority. The command is for none but Allaah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him, that is the (true) straight religion, but most men know not.” (Qur’an 12: 40).
Where are the things they have created?
“This is the creation of Allaah. So show me that which those (whom you worship) beside Him have created. Nay but the wrong-doers (and those who do not submit to Allaah) are in plain error.” (Qur’an 11 :31)
“Say (O Muhammad ): ‘Tell me or inform me (what) do you think about your (so-called) partner-gods to whom you call upon besides Allaah, show me, what they have created of the earth? Or have they any share in the heavens? Or have We given them a Book, so that they act on clear proof therefrom?’ Nay, the wrong-doers (and those who do not believe in Allaah) promise one another nothing but delusions.” (Qur’an 35: 40).
In fact they are unable to create even a fly:
“Verily! Those on whom you call besides Allaah, cannot create (even) a fly, even though they combine together for the purpose. And if the fly snatched away a thing from them, they would have no power to release it from the fly. So weak are (both) the seeker and the sought.” (Qur’an 22: 73).
They themselves are created, aren’t they?
“Attribute they as partners to Allaah those who created nothing? But they themselves are created.” (Qur’an 7: 191).
They cannot even help themselves!
“No help can they give them, nor can they help themselves.” (Qur’an 7: 192).
“Say (O Muhammad ): ‘Have you then taken (for worship) protectors other than Him, such as no power either for benef) it or for harm to themselves?’ Say: ‘Is the blind equal with the one who sees? Or darkness equal with light? Or do
they assign to Allaah partners who created the like of His creation, so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them.’ Say: Allaah is the Creator of All things. He is the One, the Irresistible.” (Qur’an 13: 16).
They cannot answer those who invoke upon them!
“So call upon them and let them answer you if you are truthful.” (Qur’an 7: 194).
The above proofs are sent down from Allaah to bring people to their senses. This is a Mercy and Kindness from Allaah for mankind. He said:
“Allaah Is the One Who sends down manifest Aayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs,
revelations etc.) to His slave (Muhammad ) that He may bring you out from darkness into light. And verily, Allaah is to you Full of Kindness, Most Merciful.” (Qur’an 57: 9).
(5) The Point About “Sexual Selection”
The survival of the strongest is not evidence for selective developmental evolution. The only thing that can be understood about the mating tendencies is that they will maintain continuity in the same strong kind and an end to the weak kind. Thus:
(i) The muscles of a strong athlete will not be inherited in his offspring.
(ii) The mind of a high quality scholar will not be transferred to his children by inheritance.
The saying that newly acquired characteristics can be inherited is rejected by modern genetic studies as well as known facts. Any quality that is not an intrinsic part of the genome is “temporal” and is not transmitted to the offspring by inheritance: Muslims circumcise their babies. Their children are not born circumcised!
(6) “Under-developed Theory”
We have not seen (or heard about) certain types of animals coming to existence through the process of developmental transformation. There was no monkey transformed into a man even after hundred years or so!
The nose of a dog is more sensitive in its smelling function than that of man. Is the nose of the dog more “advanced” than that of man? Or are the birds (with flying abilities) and frogs (with amphibian abilities) more “developed” than man? The eye of the camel and that of the horse or donkey can see during day and night, is it true then that these animals represent more “advanced” forms than man?
The male man, like the male elephant, has breast marks while horses and male donkeys do not (except some resemblance to whatever their respective mothers were). So, why does the male man continue to possess this feature while it was not present in some “lower” beings?
Scientists have called Darwin’s study a “Theory” and clearly there is always a difference between theory and reality. A theory by definition is falsifiable.